ELECTRONIC MEDIA AS INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN SOCIAL AND BUSINESS STUDIES AND AS INSTRUMENTS OF SOCIAL CHANGE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA

 

Chinedu B. Ezirim

University of Port Harcourt

cbezirim@yahoo.com

 

O. P. Nwanna-Nzewunwa

University of Port Harcourt

 

Michael I. Muoghalu

Pittsburg State University

mmuoghal@pittstate.edu

 

 

ABSTRACT

The study evaluates the roles of electronic media (radio, computers, television, projectors, videos, internet facilities and telecommunication facilities) in teaching effectiveness and social change from the perspective of a developing nation--Nigeria.  It surveyed six hundred teachers in various schools in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria using questionnaires. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics, simple and multiple regression and multivariate general linear model (GLM). The GLM procedure enabled us to investigate interactions between factors as well as the effect of individual factors. Among the media studied, radio is revealed as the most potent instructional material in achieving teaching efficiency and generating desired social change.  Computers, projectors, and internet facilities are found to have inherent capabilities of aiding teaching effectiveness that could redound to the attainment of desired social change. These results have obvious implication for policy; while the use of radio instructions should be continued, the use of the other media that have more powerful audio-visual effects should be further encouraged. The government must implement a deliberate policy of providing these facilities to needy schools, colleges, and universities.  While teaching effectiveness is a very important factor in generating desired social change, the results did not indicate that the attainment of social change would give rise to teaching effectiveness in the area studied. This implies that generating teaching effectiveness is not the end itself as far as the use of instructional materials are concerned, but a means to the end. The actual end includes the attainment of social change and development.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

            Many authors have written on the use of instructional materials both in teaching social and business studies and engineering desired social change. These authors include Nwanna-Nzewunwa (2003), Kochhar (1986), Alaka (1978), Heeks (1999), Aguokogbuo (2000), Okafor (1988), Mkpa (1989), McLuhan (1964), Koert (2000), UNDP (1998), World Bank (1999), and Greenwood (2001). More specifically, it was underlined in the works of these authors that the use of instructional materials is a sine qua non in affecting and/or changing behavior of pupils and students of every field, and especially social and business studies. It was equally shown by some of the authors that these materials are important catalysts of social re-engineering and change. Among the categories of instructional materials, the electronic media have been described as the most powerful weapon of social and business studies’ instruction both in schools and anywhere social knowledge is impacted. The reason is not far-fetched: advances in technology have brought electronic media to the forefront as the most radical tools of globalization and social development. Such technological breakthroughs as networked and non-networked; projected and non-projected; visual, auditory, audio-visual electronic media are important landmarks in knowledge transfer. With them both teaching and learning become very pleasant experiences. Their power to teach and socialize has been varied as documented in literature (Hepburn, 1998).

Electronic media possess some inherent advantages that make them unique in social and business studies. For one thing, they provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner’s interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. Further, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. Teachers with low voices, for instance, are enabled by the microphone system inherent in most electronic media. They generally make teaching and learning easier and less stressful. They are equally indispensable catalysts of social change and development.

Despite the inherent advantages of these media to teach and socialize, the extent to which developing countries have benefited in attaining teaching effectiveness and desired social change stands to be questioned. Many of the studies in advanced countries have reported the roles of electronic media in teaching effectiveness and social change (see for instance, Hepburn, 1998). However, not many of such studies have documented the experiences of less-developed countries of Africa, and especially Nigeria. The paucity of empirically based observations creates the need for many more studies in this area. For instance, we are not fully informed on whether or not teachers in various levels of schools and colleges effectively use these media as instructional materials, and with what effects. We are not equally empirically informed, as well, if these media are being utilized to achieve desired social change in the country. Answers to these and other concerns would be helpful in necessary policy directions and concerted actions.  This study is an attempt along these lines.

            In this paper, we shall discuss the use of electronic media as instructional materials in social and business studies. Before that, however, we shall make conceptual clarifications of important terms implicated in the chosen topic, as well as general considerations of instructional media generally used in social and business studies. These are the mainstay of the second section of the paper. We shall also review some studies and materials on the role of electronic media in achieving social change or development. Subsequently, we describe the methods and the procedure employed in generating and analyzing the primary data; we also analyze the data generated from our field work and test relevant hypotheses. Finally, we make necessary concluding remarks.

 

CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS

Some Important Concepts

Certain important terms are implicated in the topic and we consider it necessary to give operational definitions. They include social studies, business studies, media, instructional media, electronic, and electronic media. Many authors and commentaries have attempted to define social studies, but for the purposes of this paper, we adopt the definition in Nwanna-Nzewunwa (2003) where Dike (1989) was quoted as positing that social studies is: “… a new field of study that is concerned with how man interacts and interrelates with his fellow man in his society and with the physical and chemical factors in his environment. Social studies is also the study of the impact of science and technology on man and his environment” (Kochhar, 1988:2). The above definition is important to us especially when we can infer from it an emphasis on the application of the products of science and technology (such as electronic media and other instructional materials) in achieving desired social interactions, and lubricating healthy relationships in the society. The point being that even when social studies concerns itself with the effects of the products of science and technology on the individual, society, and their environment, use is still made of some of such products to make social studies effective. Business studies, on the other hand, are seen as the science of how man interacts with his fellow man in an environment where exchange, transfers, production, distribution and consumption of goods and services “rule the roost.”

The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English defined media as “the main means of communicating with large numbers of people, especially television, radio, [and] newspapers.” Thus, all the ways, channels, tools and aids through which information, instruction, and/or knowledge could be conveyed to learners in typical social and business studies, can be seen as instructional media. Instructional media, therefore, are such things (materials and equipment) that can help the teacher to communicate effectively needed knowledge or ideas to the students; such that at the end of such instruction, the student can be that which the teacher predetermined in his objective statement. As Nwanna-Nzewunwa (2003:117) puts it, “instructional materials are those materials that are used to arouse students’ learning.” They are also called teaching aids, which brings life to learning (Alaka, 1978).

The term electronic is defined as something having or operating with the aid of, many small components (e.g. microchips) that control and direct an electric current.  Thus, electronic calculators, electronic keyboards, electronic dictionaries, electronic bibles, are all examples of electronic equipment. Electronics is the branch of science and technology that deals with the behavior of electric currents in electronic equipment. Electronic media relates materials, equipment, and processes that utilize electronic technology to pass on information, knowledge, and ideas to people living in society. For instance, radios, televisions, computers, e-mails, and projectors can be used by instructors to educate their students effectively. They are special types of instructional materials.

 

General Considerations of Instructional Media

Good (1973) in Awotua-Efebo (1999:212) defined instructional material as: “Any device with instructional content or function that is used for teaching purposes, including books, textbooks, supplementary reading materials, and audiovisual and other sensory materials, scripts for radio and television instrumentation, programs for computer-managed packaged sets of materials for construction or manipulation.” From this perceptive, we can reaffirm that the term instructional media would include any material or equipment that a teacher can profitably use to facilitate teaching to and learning by his students. The design, development, and art of producing such materials are a major concern of educational technology (Vikoo, 2003). Thus, educational technology has been viewed by Dike (1999:10) as “a systematic application of scientific or organized knowledge to identifying and analyzing educational problems, evolving and managing programs for solving these educational problems.”

            Notable criteria abound in literature on the taxonomical basis of instructional media. As in Vikoo (2003:139), such criteria for classifying instructional materials include the degree of expertise/technical skills needed for production, nature of materials, physiological parameter  or sensory modality, whether or not projection is involved, place the material is  produced, and miscellaneous characteristics. In terms of degree of expertise, we have high technology materials such as computers, TV, internet, etc., and low technology materials such as pictures, globes, printed (such as textbooks), and non-printed materials such as radio (Alaezi, 1990). On the basis of physiological parameters, we talk of the particular sensory modality of the learner, and thus classify instructional materials into auditory visual, audio-visual, tactile, olfactory, gustatory, and kinesthetic materials (Romiszowski, 1995). Visual materials appeal to the sense of vision (the eye), such as still pictures. Auditory materials appeal to the sense of hearing (the ears), such as radio, while audio-visual materials appeal to both senses of hearing and vision, such as the television. Tactile materials appeal to the sense of touching (the skin), such as the Braille, while olfactory materials appeal to the sense of smell (the nose), such as some chemical specimen. Gustatory materials involve the sense of taste (the tongue), such as sample foods; while kinesthetic materials involve sense of muscular coordination (the muscles) with game materials, such as football as the media example. We shall not over-labor the general typology of instructional materials as this has been treated by another group. We shall restrict ourselves to electronic media, in the ensuing discussion.

Electronic Media Used in Social and Business Studies

From our conceptual clarification, electronic media used in social and business studies would include all instructional materials that are electronically generated. They can be networked when a number of equipments or materials are inter-connected or inter-related in lubricating information flow (Koert, 2000); or non-networked, if otherwise. The list of electronic media would include: radio, television, projectors, tape recorders, video sets, computers, internet facilities, and telecommunication facilities. We shall describe some of these media below and point out their implications for teaching and learning social and business studies.

Radio

This is perhaps the most prominent audio teaching aid that is used in social and business studies. The widespread use of radio sets is not unconnected with the fact that many families own radio sets since it is readily affordable. Its use is almost universal as it can be used in offices, market places, and schools. Through radio broadcast, educational, cultural and social knowledge can readily be communicated. Social re-orientation, political convictions and education, and social change have all been accomplished using this medium. The effectiveness of radio towards attaining these ends has been confirmed in its ability to cover events appropriately and enable information communicated to a wide audience at the same time, and where necessary repeatedly. Seminars, lectures, workshops can be disseminated through the radio channel effectively. Nwanna-Nzewunwa (2003) enumerated a number of merits and demerits of radio as instructional materials, which include: (a) It is far less expensive than TV (many schools can afford to buy a radio set), (b) A very wide coverage of audience is possible through radio lectures prepared by experts and can be relayed to a vast number of people at the same time (e.g. IMTUNIALF program), (c) It can broadcast events immediately as they happen (unlike television). Radio broadcasts are wordily interesting because radio transmits music and drama.

The disadvantages of radio as an instructional medium can equally be itemized to include: (a) It does not allow students the opportunity to ask questions during educational broadcasts, (b) Radio speakers talk at their own speed without knowing if the listeners are following, (c) Educational broadcasts (other than a particular school program) usually come on at odd times when some listeners may be too weak or tired to listen, such as late at night. Some people learn better when they see and hear the teacher at the same time.

The Tape Recorder

The tape recorder is an audio teaching aid. It uses cassette tapes to record learning experiences in class or from radio or television documentaries, which can be replayed in class or home. The cassette tape recorder is a very popular instructional aid.  Aguokogbuo (2000:237) also gave the advantages and disadvantages of tape recorders as follows: (a) The tape recorder is simple to operate, (b) It is cheaper than most other projected and/or electronic equipment, (c) It is usually portable and can be transferred from one place to another. The disadvantages of tape recorders include the following: (a) It is an audio medium and appeals to the sense of hearing only, therefore limiting students’ comprehension of information. Compared with television, which appeals to the sense of sight and sound, this is a big disadvantage, (b) Recorded tapes become bad when not used often and could damage the play head of the player as a result.

Computers and Internet Facilities

Computers are very efficient equipment used as instructional materials in social and business studies. Several software and programs have been developed over time for this purpose. Notable among these are statistical, processing and spreadsheet packages for social sciences. With these and more, social knowledge leading to behavioral changes is communicated to the learner. The computer technology has made it possible for teachers and students to avail themselves of internet facilities. Websites abound where instructors and learners can visit in order to obtain needed information. Efficient teachers of social and business studies in institutions of higher learning have effectively impacted their students by referring them to designated websites where they received instructions. Many libraries are now going on-line with the effect that learners and researchers can visit them electronically by means of computers instead of having to go physically to such centers. This is highly innovative.

Telecommunication Equipment

This is equipment that utilizes the auditory mechanism to convey information to the hearers. Some in this category now possess visual properties, such as the GSM cell phones. The teacher can effectively utilize telephones to communicate short messages, guidance counseling, and other related issues. The use of telecommunication gadgets as instructional materials is not widespread in less-developed countries (LDCs) or rural areas; they are relatively expensive to maintain.

Projectors

Projectors are hardware equipment that enables learners to vividly grasp the contents of software materials such as slides, filmstrips, transparencies, papers and pictures (in the form of still pictures or motion pictures). There are over-head projectors, slide projectors, and computer-driven projectors. These are veritable learning or teaching aids in social studies. The advantages of projectors lie in the powerful visual and audio content of the devices. They have both high and low technology content.

 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

            It is a settled fact in literature that a very important mission of teaching social studies and other related fields is not only to stimulate desired social behavior in the learner, but equally to facilitate social change and development. The use of appropriate tools of instruction, such as electronic media, speeds up the accomplishment of these objectives. Perhaps, this is the point underscoring the argument of Koert (2000:1) that “dialogue” or information exchange through networked (electronic) media will have to play a role of increasing importance in development, whereby networked media are in that way to facilitate rural networking and social change”. The World Bank (1999:9) reported that “one of the greatest hardships endured by the poor, and by many others, who live in the poorest countries, is their sense of isolation. The new communication technologies promise to reduce that sense of isolation and to open access to knowledge in ways unimaginable not long ago.” Electronic media being an essential catalyst assists social education in achieving such globalization ends. They are not only content providers, but also facilitators and stimulators of social change (Koert, 2000:3).

            Much earlier (in the 1960s), Schramm (1964:19, 127, 131) submitted that the only way developing economies could rapidly and effectively speed the flow of information, offer education where it had never been offered before, and teach literacy and technical skills very widely was to make full use of modern communication, which electronic media represents. Invariably, electronic media “are a liberating force because they can break the bonds of distance and isolation and transport people from a traditional society to ‘the great society,’ where all eyes are on the future and the faraway.” Thus, they can create a climate for development, and contribute substantially to the amount and kinds of information available to the people of a developing country (Schramm, 1964; Koert, 2000).

            Individual studies on the roles of different types of technology (ICT) exist in literature with varying results. For instance, Barr (1998:152-167) suggested that there is a correlation between telephone densities and level of economic development. It was equally suggested in the study that causality is inferable between basic telecommunication services and socio-economic development. Koert (2000) argued that Barr’s (1998) suggestions have not been fully established as to the exact correlation between telephone density and the level of economic development, or between increasing telephone density and economic growth. While not disagreeing on the possibility of significant effects of the above variables on the economy, Koert (2000) cautioned against the tendency of over-estimating the contributions of basic telecommunication services and the Internet on rural or social development.

            Melkote (1991) also found that possible correlation suggested to exist between mass media and socio-economic development (which consequently placed the former to be an indicator and agent of modernization in societies) by earlier studies, should not be taken to mean express causality. Against a priori expectations of significant impact of both radio and television, only radio was found to effect major change in information provision to people in rural areas in developing economies. Television coverage and use in rural areas are still limited and the focus is usually more of entertainment than education.

Neil (1979), in Hepburn (1998:1), described television and school as two competing learning systems, estimating that educators were exhorted to make sure that students study television’s effects, its biases, and its relationship to learning. Predicating on the above, Hepburn (1998:1) observed that “the pervasive influence of electronic media in the 1990s has made obsolete the 1960s model of political and civic socialization among American Youth.” She recommended that “time has come for social studies teachers to update long-established views of learning to incorporate the effects of electronic media among the youth.” Social scientists, she continued, should “study socialization as a process wherein young people develop their attitudes towards society, the government, and public affairs” (Hepburn, 1998:1).

            Koert (2000) pointed out that specific characteristics of the mass media may limit the contribution media can make to social change and rural development. Against that background, FAO (1998:19-22) suggested that the intrinsic limitations of individual media can be remedied by a combined use of electronic media for a concerted communication effort, with the media each addressing different aspects of that effort, in line with their individual strengths, and mutually reinforcing their individual contributions. A very interesting characteristic of electronic media relates to their ability to reduce the level of equivocality in a message. Communication theory assumes that a given message possesses a certain level of equivocality, and that some media are more capable of reducing that equivocation than others. It is argued that the extent to which a given electronic medium can reduce equivocality in a message determines its richness. By implication, a rich medium is one which can send messages which leaves less room for ambiguity in interpretation. Koert (2000) identified four criteria for richness of a specific medium, namely, “opportunity for direct and speedy feedback; possibility to use more types of signals (or cues), such as body language, volume, and intonation; use of natural language; and the possibility to specifically adapt the message to circumstances of individual reception.” When a message is more complicated and voluminous, the chances are greater for ambiguous interpretations. This would imply that the medium conveying such a message deploy more of the above factors (see Trevino, Daft, and Lengel, 1990: 71-94).

Broadcasting mass media, such as radio and television, in all their popularity exhibit some intrinsic shortcomings along these lines. These include: “one-way communication with little possibility for feedback, physical distance between sender and receiver, and reinforcement of existing power structure.” Others include “the difficulty of retaining the information for latter use and the susceptibility, at the same time, of messages to alternative interpretations” (Koert, 2000:4). Notwithstanding, Mowlana and Wilson (1990:151-158) insisted that radio remains the most used electronic mass medium in rural areas of less-developed countries (LDCs). FAO (1998:6) corroborated this position in its belief that the presence of local radio stations coupled with the availability of small room for “easy and affordable access” in relatively large geographical areas is a sine qua non for development. It is on this note that local radio stations are seen as the most important mass media when the question of contribution to rural development is raised. Television stations, on the other hand, are based in major cities, or even in other countries, which reinforces the negative aspect of electronic mass media. These include the problems of one-way communication, lack of feedback opportunities, and physical distance between sender and receiver. However, the television offers the additional benefit of visual information, which makes possible a slightly different type of information to be provided, since a less equivocal message can be relayed using the combination of sound and vision. Television equally shares with radio the difficulties associated with retention of information (Koert, 2000).

 

METHOD OF STUDY

            The study followed the quasi-experimental research design which is very suitable for studies in social and management sciences where respondents’ opinion   are sought and evaluated for possible inferences. The critical research instrument was the questionnaire. Construction of the questionnaire followed the Likert scale of rank-observations on a four-point maximum scale. The study covered a total of 600 teachers teaching in various schools that are located in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The first analysis of survey data was carried out by using simple descriptive statistical techniques involving the construction and analysis of frequency distribution tables, which were afterwards translated into mean scores and percentages, where applicable.

The second set of tools of analysis involved the use of simple and multiple regression analysis and the multivariate general linear model (GLM).  The GLM multivariate procedure also provided regression analysis and analysis of variance for multiple dependent variables by one or more factor variables or covariables. The procedure enables one to investigate interactions between factors as well as the effects of individual factors. Calculations were made of effects using Pillai’s Trace, Wilks’ Lambda, Hotelling’s Trace, and Roy’s Largest Root tests. Also, the paper conducted tests of between-subjects effects with type III sum of squares as the default method of evaluating different hypotheses. Inclusively, we conducted the univariate analysis of variance tests of between-subjects effects under the same default scenario as in the multivariate case. This helped to dichotomize individual effects as they apply to respective electronic media. (For more detailed explanation of the GLM procedure, see Nurosis, 2001.) The results of the univariate analysis of variance tests produced similar results as those obtained in the multivariate case, so they are not reported in this paper.

            The dependent variables relate to two critical questions asked in the questionnaire in respect of extent of occurrence of (a) teaching effectiveness and (b) social change in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria in the light of the use of electronic instructional materials. The independent variables relate to the extent of the use of individual electronic media (namely, radio, computers, television, projectors, videos, internet facilities and telecommunication facilities) as instructional materials in social and business studies in a region. The observations of the ranked Likert-type questions constituted the values used for the purposes of estimation of the implicated models.

 

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Preliminary Information

            Six hundred teachers currently teaching social and business studies in various colleges or high schools in the Niger Delta Region were studied; using the questionnaire as the data generation tool. Out of the 600 questionnaire sets, 535 (or 89.17%) were returned and utilized for this work. The mean age of the teachers was 32.63 years, while the modal class ranges between 26 and 30 years. This suggests that a good number of the teachers had less than 15 years of experience in terms of period of service. This, however, is not expected to undermine the result of this study in any way. For instance, all the respondents attested to their awareness and/or use of electronic media in one form or the other as instructional materials. Over 77% of the teachers have had at least moderately high exposure on the usage of these media in learning and teaching. Only about 22% had little exposure (see Table 1).

 

Table 1: Extent of Exposure of Teachers to Electronic Media as Instructional Materials

Response

Weight

Frequency

Total

Percentage

Great

3

65

195

26.90

Moderate

2

185

370

51.03

Little

1

160

160

22.07

None

0

124

0

0

Total

 

535

725

100.00

Source: Computed from questionnaire responses.

 

Typology and Usage of Electronic Media

            The teachers identified the major electronic instructional materials known to them to include radio, computers, television, projectors, videos, internet facilities, and telecommunication facilities. The extent to which these media are useful for instructional purposes on a general note is summarized in Table 2.  As revealed, the most utilized instructional media in their perception of usefulness is radio, which scored a mean of 2.96 or mean percentage of 74.06%. This is followed by videos (s= 2.46 or 61.43%), then projectors (s = 2.36 or 59.05%). Others that were not highly scored include computers (38.59%), internet facility (35.05%), telecommunication facilities (35.28%), and television (27.67%). These observations tend to reveal the prominence of radios, projectors and video facilities as important aids of teaching among the teachers studied.

 

Table 2: The Use of Electronic Media in Instructions in Social and Business Studies in Respondents’ Areas

 

 

Electronic Media

 

Total

Score

Maximum Possible Score

 

Mean

Score

% to Max. Score

Radio

1570

2120

2.96

74.06

Computers

795

2060

1.54

38.59

Television

571

2060

1.11

27.70

Projectors

1240

2100

2.36

59.05

Videos

1290

2100

2.46

61.43

Internet Facilities

749

2140

1.40

35.05

Telecom Facilities

754

2140

1.41

35.28

 

Instructional Materials and Teaching of Social and Business Studies

            Table 3 reveals the extent to which electronic media has proved useful in teaching social and business studies in the schools in this region of the country (66.58% of the respondents claim that the extent of usefulness is great, while 28.25% conceived it as moderately great). Only 5.24% said the extent was little; generally, they all agreed that the media is useful in some way.

Table 3: Extent of their Usefulness in Teaching Social and Business Studies

Responses

Weight

Frequency

Total

Percentage

Great

3

275

825

66.58

Moderate

2

175

350

28.25

Little

1

64

64

5.17

None

0

16

0

0

Total

 

530

1239

100.00

Source: Computed from questionnaire responses.

 

Table 4: Factors Determining the Usefulness of Electronic Media

 

 

Responses

 

Total

Score

Maximum Possible Score

 

Mean

Score

% to Max. Score

i)     Appropriateness to learners’ ages 

979

2020

1.94

48.51

ii)   Relevance to lessons

1495

2080

2.88

71.88

iii)  Simplicity in presenting just essential details

1518

2080

2.92

73.08

iv)   Adequate in size

1040

2060

2.02

50.49

v)    Interest in respect of learners

1320

1960

2.69

67.34

vi)   Simplification of concepts

1605

2020

3.18

79.46

vii) Durability

1404

2100

2.68

66.90

viii)     Readily Available

1380

2060

2.68

66.99

ix)   Affordability

1435

2140

2.68

67.06

x)    Accuracy of materials presented

1205

1980

2.43

60.86

xi)   Clarity and beauty of materials

1454

2058

2.83

70.63

Source: Computed from questionnaire responses.

 

The respondents identified and ranked the factors that determine the usefulness of electronic media as instructional materials in teaching social and business studies. Their responses are summarized in Table 4. As shown, the most important determinant was revealed to be the ability of the media to simplify concepts taught (79.46%, s = 3.18). This was followed by simplicity in presentation (73.08, s = 2.92), relevance of the media to lessons (71.88, s = 2.88), and clarity and beauty of materials (70.63%, s = 2.83). Other factors of fairly significant importance are the ability to generate interest on the part of the learners (67.34%, s = 2.69), affordability (67%, s = 2.68), readily available (67%, s = 2.68), and durability (67%, s = 2.68). Adequacy in size, accuracy of materials presented, and appropriateness to learners’ ages were only moderately mentioned by the teachers scoring mean (s) of 2.02, 2.43, and 1.94 or mean-percentage scores of 50.49%, 60.85% and 48.51%, respectively. It is worthwhile to know how the respondents would rank the various functions in light of the above criteria and in order of perceived importance.

 

Table 5: Usefulness of Instructional Materials in Teaching Social, Management, and Business Studies

 

 

Responses

 

Total

Score

Maximum Possible Score

 

Mean

Score

% to Max. Score

i)   Extension of experience available to learners

1565

2080

3.01

75.24

ii) Provision of compelling springboards to teachers

1620

2040

3.18

79.41

iii)       Assistance on in overcoming physical difficulties to teachers

1476

1960

3.01

75.26

iv) Stimulant to students interest

1685

2040

3.30

82.60

v)  Provision for differences of learners’ facilities

1461

2040

2.86

71.57

vi) Ease of teaching/learning

1664

2140

3.11

77.80

vii)      Aid communication process

1620

2020

3.21

80.20

Source: Computed from questionnaire responses.

 

Table 5 summarizes the responses as to the ways in which the use of electronic media proves useful as instructional materials in social and business studies. That these media extends the experience available to learners was scored 75.24% (Mean = 3.01). Other functions of these media as instructional materials are identified by the respondents to include the provision of compelling spring boards to teachers (79.41%, Mean = 3.18); assistance in   overcoming physical difficulties to teachers (75.26%, s = 3.01); provision for differences in learners’ faculties (71.57%, s = 2.86); stimulation of students’ interests (82.6%, s = 3.3); ease of teaching/learning (77.8%, s = 3.11); and aiding communication process (80.2%, s = 3.21). On a four-point maximum Mean-scale (i.e. 100%), these results indicate that all the identified functions of electronic media are seen to be highly important by the respondents. However, the most important function remains that electronic instructional materials stimulate students’ interest to learn.

 

Problems Attendant to Use of Electronic Media

            Certain problems were identified to associate with the use of electronic materials in the area under study (see Table 6). Among the six cardinal ones considered grave by the teachers, the problems of high cost of acquisition and maintenance was seen as the most serious; this was scored 80% (s = 3.2). Closely following in the order of gravity are the problems of propagation of social vices among students (79.29%, s = 3.08), and enhancement of unethical behavior (70.59%, s = 2.82). It is of note that the television, video, and internet facilities were seen as the worst culprits to the problems of social vices and unethical behavior among students. Other problems of moderate gravity were proneness to risks of obsolesce (67.14, s = 2.69) and requirement of long-usage–learning duration (58.42%, s = 2.34).

 

Table 6: Problems Associated with Electronic Media as Instructional Materials

 

 

Responses

 

Total

Score

Maximum Possible Score

 

Mean

Score

% to Max. Score

i)   Acquisition / Maintenance cost

1648

2060

3.20

80.10

ii) Ineffectiveness in erratic power supply areas.

1509

1960

3.08

77.04

iii)       Propagate social vices

1665

2100

3.17

79.29

iv) Enhances Unethical behavior

1440

2040

2.82

70.59

v)  Requires long usage-learning duration

1145

1960

2.34

58.42

vi) Prone to obsolescence

1410

2100

2.69

67.14

Source: Computed from questionnaire responses.

 

 

Electronic Media, Teaching Effectiveness, and Social Change

            It is believed that social and business studies when properly instructed are useful instruments of generating desired social change. It is also posited that electronic media enhances this instruction towards achieving desired social change. Following this, questions were asked relating to the extent to which this desirable societal objective is being achieved, in the light of the use of electronic media in teaching. As depicted in Table 7, 36.55% of the teachers studied believed that social change and development is being achieved in the Niger Delta Region on a great note. Just over half (50.76%) of the respondents said this change and development is being achieved moderately, while 12.69% believed that only little change and development is being achieved. Generally, it can be concluded that social change is being experienced in the area no matter the extent. The critical questions, however, relate to the direction of change and which of the electronic media was likely to have contributed most to the attainment of social change and development. The other question relates to whether or not teaching effectiveness is directly related to the attained social change and vice versa.

 

Table 7: Achievement of Social Change and Development in Respondents’ Areas

Responses

Weight

Frequency

Total

Percentage

Great

3

120

360

36.51

Moderate

2

251

502

50.91

Little

1

124

124

12.58

None

0

40

0

0

Total

 

535

986

100.00

Source: Computed from questionnaire responses.

 

TEST OF HYPOTHESES

            Two main composite null hypotheses naturally derive from the research questions. One, there is no significant relationship between effectiveness in teaching social and business studies and the use of individual electronic instructional media; the other is that there is no significant relationship between desired social change in the Niger Delta Region and the use of individual electronic instructional media in teaching social and business studies. These hypotheses were tested using results of the simple and multiple regression analysis as well as those of the multivariate general linear model. These results are depicted in Tables 8 through 10.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8: Relationships between Electronic Media and Teaching Effectiveness and Generational of Social Change

Panel A: Bivariate Simple Regression Results

 

 Teaching Effectiveness

 Social Change

Variables

F-statistic

Probability

F-statistic

Probability

Radio

4.320

.040[sig.]

4.287

.041(sig)

Computer

1.494

.224 (n.s)

2.544

.114 (n.s)

Television

2.419

.123 (n.s)

2.656

.106 (n.s)

Projecting Equipment

4.156

.044 (sig.)

2.298

.133 (n.s)

Video

3.621

.060 (sig.)

0.165

.685 (n.s)

Internet

2.362

.127 (n.s)

1.884

.173 (n.s)

Telecom Equipment

0.041

.841 (n.s)

0.587

.445 (n.s.)

 

Panel B: Stepwise Multiple Regression Results

Include variable(s)

t-statistic

Probability

F-statistic

Probability

Radio

2.078

.040

2.895

.006(sig)

Constant

13.329

.000

2.661

.010(sig)

Excluded variable(s)

Computer

 

0.512

 

.609

0.014

.989(n.s)

Television

0.457

.648

0.574

.569(n.s)

Projecting Equipment

1.531

.129

1.281

.206(n.s)

Video

1.046

.298

-0.740

.463(n.s)

Internet

1.099

.274

1.169

.248(n.s)

Telecom

-0.709

.480

0.396

.694(n.s)

Source: SPSS computer results.

 

Panel A of Table 8 shows the relationship between individual electronic media and teaching effectiveness on one side and generation of desired social change on the other, while Panel B shows the step-wise multiple regression results of the same relations.  As indicated in the simple regression relationship, three variables were seen to significantly relate with instructional or teaching effectiveness. They are radio (F = 4.32, P = .04, sig. at 5% level), projecting equipment (F = 4.156, P = .044, sig. at 5% level), and video (F = 3.621, P = .06, sig. at 10% level). Other variables are not significant. With these we are inclined to infer that there are significant relationships between the use of radios, projecting equipment, and videos as instructional materials and teaching effectiveness in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. On the other hand, there are no significant relationships between the use of computers, televisions, internet facilities, and telecomm equipments as instructional materials and teaching effectiveness in colleges in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. By implication, only radio, video, and projecting equipments were seen by the teachers studied as contributing significantly to their teaching effectiveness. The other electronic media are not seen as of any significant effect in the area under study.

             

Table 9:  Result of the Multivariate Tests of the General Linear Model

Effect

Type of Test

Value

F

Sig.

Intercept

Pillai’s Trace

Wilks’ Lambda

Hotelling’s Trace

Roy’s Largest Root

.353

.647

.546

.546

11.744a

11.744a

11.744a

11.744a

.000

.000

.000

.000

Radio

Pillai’s Trace

Wilks’ Lambda

Hotelling’s Trace

Roy’s Largest Root

.147

.853

.173

.173

3.718a

3.718a

3.718a

3.718a

.032

.032

.032

.032

Computer

Pillai’s Trace

Wilks’ Lambda

Hotelling’s Trace

Roy’s Largest Root

.074

.926

.080

.080

1.729a

1.729a

1.729a

1.729a

.190

.190

.190

.190

TV

Pillai’s Trace

Wilks’ Lambda

Hotelling’s Trace

Roy’s Largest Root

.070

.930

.075

.075

1.608a

1.608a

1.608a

1.608a

.212

.212

.212

.212

Projectors

Pillai’s Trace

Wilks’ Lambda

Hotelling’s Trace

Roy’s Largest Root

.111

.889

.125

.125

2.682a

2.682a

2.682a

2.682a

.080

.080

.080

.080

Video

Pillai’s Trace

Wilks’ Lambda

Hotelling’s Trace

Roy’s Largest Root

.045

.955

.047

.047

1.018a

1.018a

1.018a

1.018a

.370

.370

.370

.370

Internet

Pillai’s Trace

Wilks’ Lambda

Hotelling’s Trace

Roy’s Largest Root

.88

.912

.096

.096

2.063a

2.063a

2.063a

2.063a

.140

.140

.140

.140

Telecom

Pillai’s Trace

Wilks’ Lambda

Hotelling’s Trace

Roy’s Largest Root

.059

.941

.063

.063

1.349a

1.349a

1.349a

1.349a

.270

.270

.270

.270

a.Exact statistic;  b Design: Intercept + Radio + Computer

+ TV+ Proj. + Video + Internet + Telecom

 

From Table 8, we see that only the use of radio facility as the only significant electronic media that relates with social change variables (F = 4.287, P = .041 sig. at 5%). The other variables are not significant. Thus, we can infer that there is a significant relationship between the use of radio as instructional materials and the generation of desired social change in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The opposite inference is true for the use of the other electronic media in generating desired social change. This result is not surprising considering the level of development of the country in general and the Niger Delta Region in particular. The level of poverty as reflected by the low per capita income is another reason for the low use, as it were, of the other electronic media which are considered expensive. The neglect of her schools in terms of funding by the government is yet another reason. It is hoped that in the near future the trend will improve.

The results of the step-wise multiple regression analysis reveals that only the radio facility is significant at a 5% level for both dependent variables (see Table 8). This result was also corroborated by the estimation results of the general linear model.  For instance, as shown in Table 9, only the radio was seen as the most effective medium used to generate desired social change in the area. The results of Pillai’s Trace, Wilks’ Lambda, Hotelling’s Trace and Roy’s Largest Root tests of the Multivariate General Linear Model confirms the use of radio as the most effective electronic media in bringing about teaching effectiveness and electronic media (F = 3.718 for each of the above test; P = .032, sig.) (see Table 9). The other media were not seen to have contributed significantly towards positive social change. The reasons for these are not far-fetched. As already pointed out in the section on theoretical background, the radio is the commonest, most widely used and perhaps cheapest of all the electronic media under study. Every family, to say the least, possesses a transistor radio. Other media are seen to be expensive to the average family, which is still battling with poverty in the region. These results agree with the result of a similar study by Koerted (2000:6) using the Peru experience. It was particularly submitted in the study that local mass media (e.g., the Radio Sicuania) are not just “communicators,” but also local “social actors,” where the radio remains the medium with the largest coverage in Peru.

 

Table 10:  General Linear Model Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Source

Dependent Variable

F

Sig.

Corrected Model

Teaching

Schange

.610

2.370

.744

.038

Intercept

Teaching

Schange

18.102

3.892

.000

.055

Radio

Teaching

Schange

.047

7.352

.829

.010

Computer

Teaching

Schange

.000

3.499

.999

.068

TV

Teaching

Schange

.534

2.477

.469

.123

Projector

Teaching

Schange

1.486

3.463

.229

.069

Video

Teaching

Schange

.169

2.014

.683

.163

Internet

Teaching

Schange

.126

3.900

.724

.055

Telecomm

Teaching

Schange

1.769

.722

.190

.400

Error

Teaching

Schange

 

 

Total

Teaching

Schange

 

 

Corrected Total

Teaching

Schange

 

 

  1. R-squared = .089 (Adjusted R-squared = -.056)
  2. R-squared = -.274 (Adjusted R-squared = .158)

 

The next question is whether or not, by using electronic media, teaching effectiveness brings about desired social change in the region under study or vice versa. The use of the multivariate General Linear Model tests was employed. The results as in Table 10 show that, in general, by the instrumentality of all the electronic media, proper goal-directed teaching reserves immense potentials to bring about desired social change. This point is lent credence by the result of the corrected model of between subject effects (F = 2.37; P = .038, sig.) in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. On the other hand, the tests of between-subject effects shows that giving the use of the identified electronic media, social change does not bring about teaching effectiveness (F = .61; P = .744, n.s). Thus, as a priori expected, whereas effective teaching can cause desired social change, the reverse position is not substantiated by the results of this study. The possibility and general ability of effective teaching to generate desired social change in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is enhanced by the use of radio (F = 7.38; P = .010), and marginally by computer (F = 3.499, P = .68, sig. at 10% level), projectors (F = 3.46, P = .069, sig. at 10% level), and internet facilities (F = 3.90, P = .055, sig. at 10% level). These imply that, should the country be serious about attaining level of teaching effectiveness that would generate desired social change, emphasis should be placed not only on radio, projectors and videos as revealed in the earlier analysis, but also on computers and internet facilities. True to the fact, these latter media happen to be the most important agents of globalization at the moment; thus, their full potentials in facilitating socialization are yet to be tapped to real advantage in Nigeria.

 

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The study and its ensuing analysis identified radio, computers, television, projectors, videos, internet facilities and telecommunication facilities as the main types of electronic media known to and used for teaching in schools domicile in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Among these media, radio is revealed as the most potent instructional material in achieving teaching efficiency and generating desired social change. This was confirmed by the results of the simple and multiple regression analysis, as well as the tests associated with the general linear model. However, the F-test results of the simple linear regression models indicate that projectors and videos exerted significant effects in enhancing teaching effectiveness. Also, the tests of between-subject effect of the two dependent variables (teaching effectiveness and desired social change) further reveal that computers, projectors, and internet facilities as having inherent capabilities of aiding teaching effectiveness that would redound to the attainment of desired social change. These inherent potentials can be tapped to great advantage. These results have obvious implication for policy: while the use of radio instructions should be continued, the use of the other media that have more powerful audio-visual effects can be encouraged. The government must make a deliberate policy of providing these facilities to needy schools, colleges, and universities. The funds made available by the government to universities in the country for Direct Teaching and Laboratory Facilities (DTLF) should be channeled to provide these media with priority. Colleges and polytechnics should be similarly assisted – each according to the level of need.

            It was also shown by the results that whereas teaching effectiveness is a very important factor in generating desired social change, the result did not indicate that the attainment of social change would give rise to teaching effectiveness in the area studied. The relationship was not that   of “bi-causational.” This implies that generating teaching effectiveness is not the end itself as far as the use of instructional materials are concerned, but a means to the end. The actual end includes the attainment of social change and development. This reinforces the critical purpose of teaching: to influence behavior or to achieve behavioral changes in the society. A policy implication of this result is that every concerted effort should be made to encourage teachers to be more effective in their chosen duty. Encouragement can be in the way of sponsored skills enhancement programs, such as by organizing periodic further teachers’ training programs that would educate them more on the use of modern instructional delivery strategies and materials. It is expected that when they get better equipped, they become more effective, and the ultimate effect would naturally be transmitted to the learners and the society at large, in terms of desired social change.

 

 

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